Homepage of "Mr. Lincoln, Route 66, & Other
Highlights of Lincoln, IL"
A Long-Range Plan to Brand the First Lincoln
Namesake City as the Second City of Abraham Lincoln Statues
Lincoln Bicentennial Celebration in Lincoln, Illinois
Abraham Lincoln and the Historic Postville
including a William Maxwell connection to the Postville Courthouse
About Henry Ford and the Postville Courthouse,
the Story of the Postville Courthouse Replica,
Tantivy, & the Postville Park
Neighborhood in the
Route 66 Era
The Rise of Abraham Lincoln and His History and
Heritage in His First Namesake Town,
also the founding of Lincoln College, the plot to steal Lincoln's
body, and memories of Lincoln College and the Rustic Tavern-Inn
Introduction to the Social & Economic History of
including poetry by William Childress & commentary by Federal Judge
Bob Goebel & Illinois Appellate Court Judge Jim Knecht
"Social Consciousness in William Maxwell's
Writings Based on Lincoln, Illinois" (an article published in the
Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, winter 2005-06)
Peeking Behind the Wizard's Screen: William
Maxwell's Literary Art as Revealed by a Study of the Black Characters in
Billie Dyer and Other Stories
Introduction to the Railroad & Route 66 Heritage
of Lincoln, Illinois
The Living Railroad Heritage of Lincoln, Illinois:
on Track as a Symbol of the "Usable Past"
Route 66 Overview Map of Lincoln with 42 Sites,
Descriptions, & Photos
The Hensons of Business Route 66
The Wilsons of Business
Route 66, including the Wilson Grocery & Shell
Route 66 Map & Photos Showing Lincoln Memorial
(former Chautauqua site),
the Historic Cemeteries, & Nearby Sites
Route 66 Map & Photos Showing Salt Creek &
the highway bridges, GM&O bridge, Madigan State Park, the old dam (with
photos & Leigh's memoir of "shooting the rapids" over the old dam), &
the Ernie Edwards' Pig-Hip Restaurant Museum in Broadwell
The Historic Logan County Courthouse, Past &
Route 66 Map with 51 Sites in the Business &
Courthouse Square Historic District,
including locations of historical markers
(on the National Register of Historic Places)
Vintage Scenes of the Business & Courthouse Square
The Foley House: A
Monument to Civic Leadership
(on the National Register of
the Route 66 Era
Arts & Entertainment Heritage,
the Lincoln Theatre Roy Rogers' Riders Club of the
Cars, Trucks & Gas Stations of the Route 66 Era
Churches, including the hometown
churches of Author William Maxwell & Theologian Reinhold Niebuhr
Factories, Past and Present
Food Stores of
the Route 66 Era
Hospitals, Past and Present
Hotels & Restaurants of the Railroad & Route 66
Lincoln Developmental Center
(Lincoln State School & Colony in
the Route 66 era), plus
debunking the myth of
Lincoln, Illinois, choosing the Asylum over the University of Illinois
Mining Coal, Limestone, & Sand & Gravel; Lincoln Lakes; & Utilities
Museums & Parks, including the Lincoln College
Museum and its Abraham Lincoln Collection, plus the Heritage-in-Flight
News Media in the Route 66 Era
The Odd Fellows' Children's Home
Memories of the 1900 Lincoln Community High School,
including Fred Blanford's dramatic account of the lost marble
fountain of youth
A Tribute to the Historians and Advocates of
Watering Holes of the Route 66 Era
The Historic 1953 Centennial Celebration of
The Festive 2003 Sesqui-centennial Celebration of
Lincoln, Illinois, including photos of LCHS Class of 1960
dignitaries & the Blanfords
Why Did the State Police Raid Lincoln, Illinois,
on October 11, 1950?
The Gambling Raids in Lincoln and Logan County,
During the Late Route 66 Era (1950-1960)
in this section tell about Leigh Henson's Lincoln years, moving away,
revisits, and career:
About Lincoln, Illinois;
This Web Site; & Me
A Tribute to Lincolnite Edward Darold
Henson: World War II U.S. Army Veteran of the Battles for Normandy and
the Hedgerows; Brittany and Brest; and the Ardennes (Battle of the
For Remembrance, Understanding, & Fun: Lincoln
Community High School Mid-20th-Century Alums' Internet Community
(a Web site and
email exchange devoted to collaborative memoir and the sharing of photos
related to Lincoln, Illinois)
Leigh Henson's Pilgrimage to Lincoln, Illinois, on
July 12, 2001
Review of Dr. Burkhardt's William Maxwell Biography
Leigh Henson's Review of Ernie Edwards' biography,
Pig-Hips on Route 66, by William Kaszynski
Leigh Henson's Review of Jan Schumacher's
Glimpses of Lincoln, Illinois
Teach Local Authors: Considering the Literature of
Web Site About
Leigh Henson's Professional Life
in this section are about the writing, memorabilia, and Web sites of
A Tribute to Bill and Phyllis Stigall:
Exemplary Faculty of Lincoln College at Mid-Twentieth Century
A Tribute to the Krotzes of Lincoln, Illinois
A Tribute to Robert Wilson (LCHS '46): Author of
Young in Illinois, Movies Editor of December Magazine,
Friend and Colleague of December Press Publisher Curt Johnson, and
Correspondent with William Maxwell
Brad Dye (LCHS '60): His Lincoln, Illinois, Web
including photos of many churches
Dave Armbrust's Memorabilia of Lincoln, Illinois
Fikuarts of Lincoln, Illinois, including their
connections to the William Maxwell family and three generations of
family fun at Lincoln Lakes
Jerry Gibson (LCHS '60): Lincoln, Illinois,
Memoirs & Other Stories
Dave Johnson (LCHS '56): His Web Site for the
Lincoln Community High School Class of 1956
Sportswriter David Kindred: Memoir of His
Grandmother Lena & Her West Side Tavern on Sangamon Street in the Route
Judge Jim Knecht
(LCHS '62): Memoir and Short Story, "Other People's Money," Set in
Hickey's Billiards on Chicago Street in the Route 66 Era
William A. "Bill" Krueger (LCHS '52): Information
for His Books About Murders in Lincoln
Norm Schroeder (LCHS '60): Short Stories
Stan Stringer Writes About His Family, Mark
Holland, and Lincoln, Illinois
Thomas Walsh: Anecdotes Relating to This Legendary
Attorney from Lincoln by Attorney Fred Blanford & Judge Jim Knecht
Leon Zeter (LCHS '53): His Web Site for the
Lincoln Community High School Class of 1953,
including announcements of LCHS class reunions
(Post yours there.)
Highway Sign of
The Route 66
Association of Illinois
State Historical Society
April 24, 2004: Awarded "Best Web Site of the Year" by
the Illinois State Historical
Society and Since Continuously Developed:
achievement: serves as a model for the profession and reaches a greater
Marquee Lights of the Lincoln Theater, est. 1923, Lincoln, Illinois
The Question of Whether
Law in the Christian Church of Lincoln, Illinois
D. Leigh Henson, PhD
Springfield, MO --
December 20, 2017. For many decades, an interesting major question for
the history of Logan County, Illinois, and its seat of Lincoln--the First
Lincoln Namesake Town--and a minor question for the legal career of
Abraham Lincoln is whether he had practiced law in the Christian Church of
Lincoln, Illinois, when it was used as the site of the Eighth Judicial
Circuit Court during the 1857 fall term and possibly the 1858 spring
term. During those terms, Logan County was building a new courthouse,
because on April
15, 1857, fire had destroyed the previous one (built in 1853--54), where the Circuit
Court was held. (Mr. Lincoln had participated in the March 1857 term of
the Logan County Circuit Court.)
This question intrigues
me because, like many people, I am curious about everything Abraham Lincoln ever did and every place he
ever visited--in my case, especially the First Lincoln Namesake Town, my hometown. (I am
also interested in Lincoln the writer/speaker.) Mr.
Lincoln's legal activity is well documented, and there are no other
questions about where he had practiced law. The "lawyer Lincoln in church" question first caught my
attention a little more than ten years ago. I researched it then,
without conclusive results, and I have researched it a couple of times
since, gaining more useful information, but still without a complete
answer. Here is an
account of my findings to date.
The 2007 Lincoln
Christian Church's Claim
That Mr. Lincoln Had Practiced Law There
I began to
investigate this question in 2007, when
officials of the
Christian Church in Lincoln widely publicized their discovery of a 1975 photo
of a missing church plaque that stated Abraham Lincoln had practiced law in
their church. Plaque text: "Pending erection of a
new courthouse for Logan County to replace one destroyed by fire in 1857,
the original Christian Church built on this site that year was used as both
Church and Circuit Courtroom and here Abraham Lincoln practiced law and by
common consent acted as temporary judge" ("Lincoln Christian Church Holds
Unique Historical Fame,"
Pantagraph, September 9, 2007).
(See photos of that
plaque and church below in this
report, and find news articles in Sources Cited and Suggested.) The language
"by common consent acted as temporary judge" could be interpreted to mean
that at the time of the plaque's installation, Lincoln biographers and
historians generally agreed that he had served as a judge at that time and
place, but as later explained, the language meant something else. Apparently, none of the journalists writing about the Lincoln Christian
Church's claim in 2007 questioned it.
Then, in addition to the 1975 plaque photo, Mr. Ron Otto, the preaching
minister (official title) of the Lincoln Christian Church, announced that he had
found a copy of what was said at the plaque's dedication. This document
had been misfiled among some legal papers, he noted, "which is why it wasn't
discovered before" ("Story Stands: Abe Did Practice Law in Lincoln Church,"
the Courier, September 8, 2007).
In 2007 the text of what was said at the plaque dedication was not made
public. This plaque
was installed in the second Lincoln Christian Church building
("Story Stands"), which was dedicated in 1904 (Beaver, Logan County
History 1982, p. 62). (A photo of the second Lincoln Christian Church
appears later in this report.)
Mr. Otto and Mr. Todd Parmenter, the church's executive minister, called for
a community-wide search
for the missing plaque.
Convinced of the
accuracy of the plaque's text, those church officials boasted that their
church was absolutely the only one in the world where Mr. Lincoln had
media in central Illinois carried stories about the church's claim as a
result of press releases from the Lincoln Christian Church. These
news stories reported that church officials would seek co-sponsorship from the
Illinois State Historical Society (ISHS) in erecting a historical marker at
the site of their 1857 church, now a parking lot next to the Lincoln Public
Library, to commemorate their church's distinctive, alleged connection to
Mr. Lincoln. The ISHS required at least one primary source before endorsing
a historical marker. A primary source is one that is contemporary with a
given event, for example, a court document, newspaper report, letter, or
diary--in this case, something dating to 1857--58.
Christian Church Plaque Photo
Reprinted in the 2007 LincolnDailyNews.com
The undated photo
below shows the second Lincoln Christian Church, where the plaque had
been installed outside sometime between 1937 and 1942--probably 1941
because in that year an article appeared in the Lincoln Courier
about a reminiscent, eyewitness account of Lincoln acting as judge in
this church sometime during the construction of the Logan County
Courthouse, 1857--58. More about that article later.
Christian Church, Dedicated in 1904 (demolished early 1950s)
(Undated photo courtesy of native Lincolnite Fred Blanford, 1941--2008)
The inset shows the minister of that time,
perhaps a Mr. Hooe. The photo was taken by Charles Stringer of Lincoln,
Illinois, no known
relation to Lawrence B. Stringer (1866--1942), who was a Lincolnite, Logan
County judge, student of Abraham Lincoln, and historian. He played a major
role in the "lawyer Lincoln in church" question. At the right of the church is the Miller
Building (department store), constructed of concrete blocks, long
My 2007 research found
that the renowned Abraham Lincoln historian James T. Hickey (1922--1996) had
considered this question. In 1953 during the Centennial Celebration of
Lincoln, Mr. Hickey's research was summarized in an article in the Lincoln
Courier's special Centennial Edition. Mr. Hickey reported
that the 1857 fall Logan County Circuit Court at Lincoln began on September
21 (Monday) and ended two weeks later on October 2 (Friday). Mr. Hickey found that Mr. Lincoln
could not have practiced law in the Lincoln Christian Church during the 1857
fall term, because the historical record shows he was then in Chicago on
legal business for many days (details of Mr. Hickey's research appear later in the present
The Lincoln Log shows that Mr. Lincoln
finished his Chicago legal business on September 24 (Thursday), 1857,
and was back in Springfield September 26--30. The Lincoln
Log does not have entries for Mr. Lincoln on September 25 (Friday)
or subsequent days when the Logan County Circuit Court was in session
that term: October 1 and 2 (Thursday and Friday) but shows that Lincoln attended court in Metamora October 7--10.
I reported Mr. Hickey's research findings to the executive minister of the Christian Church,
Mr. Todd Parmenter.
We then had several, debate-like, civil email exchanges. Mr. Parmenter noted
that Mr. Stringer spoke at the plaque's dedication and asserted that his
speaking on this occasion indicated his belief that
Abraham Lincoln did practice law in the Lincoln Christian Church: "Why would
Stringer speak if he didn't believe what the plaque said was true?" ("Story
Stands"). I note that Judge Stringer may even have been involved in
composing the text of the plaque: both Stringer's history book and the
plaque begin with the legalistic term "pending," and the law was his
profession. Stringer had composed the inscription
on the bronze marker of the granite monument erected at the site of the
Postville Courthouse in Lincoln by the DAR in 1917 (Lincoln Evening Courier,
Centennial Edition, Section Six, August 26, 1953, p. 7). (For complete texts of the
email exchanges between Mr. Parmenter and me, access
Mr. Parmenter's question was a good one, and later in this report
I offer my opinion as to why Mr. Stringer involved himself in the plaque
project. Also, I suggest that
members of the Lincoln
Christian Church undoubtedly read the 1953 Courier article reporting
Mr. Hickey's determination that Mr. Lincoln did not practice law in
their church. It stands to reason that they then promptly removed the plaque because of its
inaccuracy. Subsequently the plaque mysteriously disappeared until April
2017, as explained later. In my
email exchanges with Mr. Parmenter, he eventually admitted that Mr.
Hickey's findings made a lot of sense (email to me of 9-13-2007). The debate
then shifted to the 1858 spring term of the Circuit Court at Lincoln. Mr.
Lincoln participated in those proceedings, but, as described below, they
probably did not take place in the Christian Church.
In 2007 I notified
various news media in central Illinois that I was calling the Christian
Church's claim into question. (Under Sources Cited and Suggested below, see
articles published by central Illinois news sources that explained my
skepticism about the church's claim.) In 2007 church officials indicated
their people would continue searching for an appropriate primary source, in
addition to the plaque. The reappearance of the plaque in April 2017 was as
mysterious as its disappearance.
Hickey's Research into Lincoln's Legal Activity
1857 Fall Term of the Logan County Circuit Court
Mr. Hickey had determined that during the 1857 fall term of the Logan
County Court, Abraham Lincoln was participating in a court case in Chicago (Lincoln
Evening Courier, Centennial Edition, section Five, August 26, 1953, p.
8). For the record, here is the entire text of the 1953 Courier
article in which Mr. Hickey provided evidence supporting his view that Mr. Lincoln
most likely did not practice law
in the Christian Church in Lincoln during this period:
The First Christian Church of Lincoln was used at one time as the county
courthouse, but there is no proof that Abraham Lincoln ever appeared
there during the period, James Hickey, vice president of the Logan
County Historical Society, maintains. While searching the courthouse
records for material, Hickey came across a suit that had been filed in
the circuit court in 1858. According to Hickey, the find revealed the
following: David Blain, contractor and builder of the first church[,]
filed a bill for relief in chancery Aug. 26, 1858, to obtain payment of
a balance due on the contract.
Filed Answer: The suit was directed against the building committee
of the church, Joseph Reed, John Handesley, Samuel Emmett, Hopkins Judy [sic]. and
Michael Hinricken. The trustees filed an answer to Blain's suit, stating
there was bad workmanship, the shingles were bad and the roof leaked. They
maintained that Blain was paid more than he was entitled.
the record are these words, "The said Blain once rented the building as
a courthouse to the County of Logan and received from said county the
sum of $50,-- therefor [sic] and since has entrusted said church to the care of Thomas H.
Denney." The court found for the contractor and the trustees were ordered to
pay the balance due on the contract. This document [Blain's original
complaint?] was filed with John T.
Jenkins, circuit clerk at this time but was destroyed by fire April 15,
Told on Plaque:
The Fall term of court was held in the church building from Sept. 21 to Oct.
2 and the church bears a plaque stating that Abraham Lincoln held court
there during this period. Hickey says that Lincoln was in Chicago during
this period, and it would have been physically impossible for him to be in
Lincoln. Newspapers of the period gave great play to his part in the Effie
Hickey has found evidence of a bill of particulars on a case that was
heard in the church while it was serving as a courtroom. The document is
in Lincoln's handwriting and concerns the case of Steigleman and Johnson v.
Many A. Brace and William H. Young. As Hickey sees it, the case was handled
by Lincoln's partner, Herndon. "There just is no way that Lincoln could
have taken part in the case in Lincoln and the railroad case in Chicago at
the same time," he asserts ("No Proof Abe Lincoln on Hand, Records Here
Lincoln Evening Courier, Centennial Edition, Section Five, Wednesday, August 26, 1953, p.
8). In his 1953 centennial history of Lincoln, Illinois, The Namesake
Town, Raymond Dooley echoes Hickey's findings (p. 18). (Note: In
The Lincoln Log does not show Abraham Lincoln in Lincoln,
Illinois, from April through December of 1857.)
Mr. Hickey was a researcher and able writer as indicated by his
1953--1984. While it is
true that the 1953 Courier article focuses on the 1857 fall case, Mr.
Hickey would have been naturally interested in the broader question of
whether Mr. Lincoln practiced law in the Lincoln Christian Church during the spring of 1858. None of his other writings that I am
aware of deal with this subject further, so he must not have discovered any other
evidence relating to this matter.
James Thomas ("Jim") Hickey
Photo from The Lincoln
Newsletter (fall, 1996),
a publication of the Lincoln Heritage Museum of Lincoln College,
courtesy Professor Ron J. Keller of Lincoln College
Hickey, a protégé of Judge
Stringer, had served as a curator of the Henry Horner Collection in the
former Illinois State Library (now the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
and Museum), and he was the author of many research-based reports on Abraham Lincoln (The Collected Writings of James T. Hickey, 1953--1984).
Mr. Hickey was a consultant in the 1960s reconstruction of the original Illinois
Capitol in Springfield. In
mid-twentieth century at Lincoln College, Mr. Hickey taught a two-semester
course on Abraham Lincoln. I took that course in 1960--61. Mr. Hickey taught
with charming wit, expressing much pleasure for the study of Abraham
Lincoln. In retirement from teaching, I have experienced that kind of pleasure.
The Significance of the Steigleman
By mid-2009 I had not seen any new developments in the quest for the
church plaque or relevant primary source evidence relating to the
"Lincoln in church" question, so I continued my research on these
matters. The presence of Mr.
Lincoln in Springfield in the last week of September, 1857, while the Logan
County Circuit Court was allegedly being held in the Lincoln Christian Church,
revives the significance of the case of Steigleman and Johnson v. Many
A. Brace and William H. Young as potential evidence that Mr. Lincoln
practiced law in the Lincoln Christian Church. When I looked online at
The Lincoln Log (authoritative account of Lincoln's daily activities), I
discovered that the Effie Afton case was concluded on September 24,
1857, and that Mr. Lincoln was back in Springfield on the 26th. In
the summer of 2009, I wrote to Dr. Bryon Andreasen, then a research historian of the Abraham
Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, to ask for assistance in
determining whether the court records for Steigleman date to the last
few days of September or the first two days of October, when Abraham Lincoln
had returned to Springfield and thus would have been able to attend court in
In his reply letter of August 27, 2009, Dr. Andreasen said Steigleman
was heard and decided on September 21, 1857, in favor of the plaintiffs,
represented by the law firm of Lincoln & Herndon: "The plaintiffs'
petition (what Jim Hickey must have been referring to as the "Bill of
Particulars") is in Lincoln's hand. It would have had to have been
written and filed before commencement of the fall term in September
1857, in order for notice and process to have been served on the
defendants. It would not have been necessary for Lincoln to have
personally been in attendance on September 21. Hickey was no doubt
correct in his supposition that Herndon (or some other proxy) attended
the September 21st proceeding, since Lincoln is documented to
have still been in Chicago trying the Effie Afton case on that
According to The Lincoln Log, Mr. Lincoln
was back in Springfield on September 26 (Saturday) through September 30
(Wednesday). The Lincoln Log has no entries for October 1 (Thursday)
through October 5 (Monday) and shows Mr. Lincoln in court in Metamora
beginning on October 7. The point is that Mr. Lincoln could have
traveled by train from Springfield to Lincoln in the last days of September
and the first two days of October to attend the Logan County Circuit Court
during the entire second week of its fall 1857 term.
The Question of Whether Mr. Lincoln
Was at Bench or Bar in
the Christian Church During the 1858 Spring Term of
the Logan County Circuit Court
Court documents show that Mr. Lincoln had participated in the circuit
court at Lincoln in the spring of 1858 while a new courthouse was being
built. The new courthouse was not completed until June that year
(Stringer, History of Logan County, 1911, vol. 1, p. 163). The Lincoln Log specifies that Abraham Lincoln was
in the 1858 Logan County Circuit Court on March 18, 22, and 17, and
identifies three cases there and then that Mr. Lincoln tried: Bruner et al. v. Bruner et al.; Hickey v.
Hamilton & Dugger; and Hildreth v. Gill.
In 2007, Lincoln
Christian Church officials indicated their belief that the circuit
court's 1858 spring term might also have been held in their church, but
no primary source evidence to date proves it.
Judge Lawrence B. Stringer researched local history in detail, and his encyclopedic, two-volume History of Logan
County includes a chapter on Abraham Lincoln and his law
practice. Judge Stringer's collection of Lincoln memorabilia formed
the basis of the Lincoln collection of the present-day Lincoln Heritage
Museum at Lincoln College, Lincoln, Illinois.
Stringer's History explains that while the new Logan County
Courthouse was being constructed in 1857--58, separate temporary structures were
used for regular business: "The
contract for the erection of this court house also included the erection of
two small fireproof offices, to be occupied by the Circuit and County
Clerks, said offices to be detached and equally distant from the main
building, each to face Kickapoo Street and each to be on a line with the
west line of the courthouse. . . . The north office was occupied by the
Circuit Clerk and the south office by the County Clerk. The latter office was also occupied by the County Judge, and the County
Court was held in this building. The offices were ready for occupancy
October 1, 1857" (Stringer, History, vol. 1, p. 163).
In the spring of 1858, then, it is quite
probable that the Circuit Court was held in the building occupied by the
Circuit Clerk or the one occupied by the County Judge. Stringer would not have felt a need to explain what would
have been well known to those familiar with nineteenth-century
Illinois--that it was a common practice to hold circuit court in county
courtrooms when separate courtrooms did not exist. One example of that
may be seen in the 1953 replica of the Logan County Courthouse
of Postville in Lincoln, Illinois. Below is a photo of the 1858 Logan County
Courthouse and the temporary offices of the Circuit Clerk (building to
the left of the courthouse) and County Clerk (building to the right of
Picture Postcard Showing
the Logan County Courthouse and Temporary Offices, Where Mr. Lincoln
Probably Practiced Law, Spring of 1858
The email debates Mr. Parmenter and I had
did not exactly lead us to "a meeting of the minds," but the exchanges
were civil, and mutually rewarding, as he observed:
In closing, I have enjoyed our exchanges on this story about Mr. Lincoln
and the Lincoln Christian Church. Your information and insight has been
both helpful and stimulating. I look forward to pursuing this story to
its conclusion, and I will keep you up to date on anything new we
discover. I believe you have stayed focused in your responses, and I
recognize that we are not that far apart. I concur that we cannot have
total agreement until the last few missing pieces of primary evidence
are located. I am hopeful that they eventually will be found. I too
consider these last few conversations as case closed and thank you for
your graciousness (email, 9-20-2007).
Since then, I have received no additional
communication from any official of the Lincoln Christian Church.
Error Contributed to the Idea That Mr.
Practiced Law in the Lincoln Christian Church
History of Logan County, 1911, is the main secondary source providing
a basis for the possible claim that Abraham Lincoln practiced law in the
Lincoln Christian Church. Stringer wrote, "Pending its [1857 Logan County
Courthouse] erection and completion, the terms of court were held in the
Christian Church" (vol. 1, p. 162). Yet
nowhere in his History does Judge Stringer explicitly claim that
Abraham Lincoln worked as a lawyer or judge in the Lincoln Christian Church.
Judge Stringer was fascinated
with Abraham Lincoln and describes his every activity that can possibly be based on source evidence, including eyewitness accounts. In places where Stringer focuses on Mr. Lincoln,
including a separate chapter on him, Stringer would surely have mentioned
Mr. Lincoln practicing law in the Lincoln Christian Church if Stringer had
evidence to support that claim.
Nevertheless, Stringer's History includes an
account of a case taken by the law firm of
Lincoln & Herndon (William H. Herndon, Lincoln's Springfield law
partner) that relates to the question of Lincoln practicing law in the
Christian Church. The case is titled St. Louis, Alton, & Chicago Railroad Co. v. Dalby. Joseph
A. Dalby sued the railroad for injuries he had received while scuffling with
railroad employees over the price of a fare for his family's passage
north from Elkhart to Lincoln. The firm of Lincoln & Herndon
represented Mr. Dalby, but also during this case, Lincoln was in Chicago. Court
records show that attorney Samuel C. Parks of Lincoln aided Herndon.
Stringer's History claims that Lincoln had written the judge's
instructions to the jury in Dalby (vol. 1, p. 219). Stringer's book includes a facsimile of part of the judge's instructions to
the jury (vol. 1, between pp. 368--69). Stringer does not date the Dalby
case, but he probably assumed it was heard in Lincoln, Illinois, when the Circuit Court was held
in the Christian Church.
My research discovered
that attorney-biographer John J. Duff in A. Lincoln, Prairie
Lawyer (1960) pointed out that Stringer had erred in identifying the
author of the jury instructions. Mr. Duff wrote, "One does not have to be a
handwriting expert to see that there is no resemblance whatever between the
facsimile of the instructions and Lincoln's unmistakable handwriting. (The
writing clearly is that of David Davis. The Illinois State Historical
Library has some of the original papers in this case, and the Judge's hand
is much in evidence.) Beveridge (early twentieth-century Lincoln
biographer), citing Stringer, indicates that Lincoln tried the case
in the lower [circuit] court. As a matter of fact, at the time of the trial
in Logan County, Lincoln was in Chicago, trying the Effie Afton case"
Undoubtedly Stringer's error in thinking that Abraham Lincoln had written
the judge's instructions to the jury could have been a factor in his mistaken
belief that Lincoln had practiced law in the Lincoln Christian Church in
1857. Further, historian William D. Beard pointed out that Stringer's error
had led several other well-known, twentieth-century Lincoln biographers and
historians to make the inaccurate inference that Lincoln had practiced law
in his First Namesake Town that term. The railroad lost the case in circuit
court and appealed in the Illinois Supreme Court. According to Beard,
Herndon--not Lincoln (as other Lincoln experts had believed)--handled the
appeal proceedings in which the higher court upheld the lower court's
judgment. The Dalby case became one of the most significant cases of
the firm of Lincoln & Herndon for setting influential precedence. (See
link to Beard's article in Sources Cited and Suggested.)
The Lincoln Log, on September 24, 1857 (Thursday), the Effie Afton trial
ended in favor of the railroad company, Lincoln's client. The Lincoln Log
has no entry for September 25, 1857 (Friday); but as explained later, Mr.
Lincoln may have passed through his First
on that date--the very day Dalby was concluded in the circuit court (Court
Record, December Term 1857, St. Louis & Chicago RR
v. Dalby, Lincoln Legal Papers, 274).
Also, according to
The Lincoln Log, Abraham Lincoln, as noted above, was back in
Springfield on September 26 (Saturday).
Mr. Lincoln had been in Chicago continuously since the beginning of
September 1857, working on the Effie Afton case. He must have been
eager to head home as soon as possible, but there is no information to indicate exactly when he
boarded the train in Chicago to return to Springfield. Apparently each day
of the week in 1857, the St. Louis, Alton and Chicago Railroad offered
overnight express (passenger) service that Mr. Lincoln could have used to
travel from Chicago to Springfield, according to a schedule published on
September 25, 1857, in the Bloomington Pantagraph. One example
showing that Mr. Lincoln traveled by train at night occurred in 1858
immediately following the last Lincoln-Douglas debate, at Alton on October
15. After that debate, Mr. Lincoln managed to go from Alton to his First
Namesake Town (approximately 120 miles), to participate in a Republican
rally at mid-day and speak for two hours. The only way he could get there on
would have been to travel by train at night.
According to the
1857 schedule published in the Pantagraph, the train from Chicago would have arrived in Bloomington
around 3:30 a.m. and would have left Bloomington for Springfield at 5:00
a.m. The train would have stopped in Lincoln about two hours later, in time
for Mr. Lincoln to attend court in the Lincoln Christian Church as an
observer if not a participant. Mr. Lincoln's presence there would have
enabled Judge Davis to arrange for Mr. Lincoln to substitute for him some time(s) during the following week, when the Logan County Circuit Court met
each weekday. Even if Mr. Lincoln had waited to travel by day on September
25, he could have stopped in Lincoln near the end of the day and conversed with Judge Davis, Mr.
Herndon, and Mr. Parks.
Ironically, if Mr. Lincoln had visited the court in Lincoln on September 25,
he would have witnessed Judge Davis presiding over the conclusion of
Dalby--the case for which Judge Stringer mistakenly thought Mr. Lincoln
had served as Davis's substitute.
Lawrence B. Stringer
Undated photo from Dooley, The Namesake Town (1953), p. 75.
Dr. Jacob Hoke Beidler's Reminiscent
Account of Claiming to
See Mr. Lincoln Serving as a Judge in the Lincoln Christian Church
Late in February 2010, after I
published an article at LincolnDailyNews.com about Judge Stringer's error, I
received additional information that led to a new question about Lincoln
possibly working in the church that fall as a substitute judge.
The new information was the discovery of an article in the Lincoln
Evening Courier of July 21, 1941, about the dedication of the bronze
plaque placed on the front of the second Lincoln Christian Church to
commemorate its belief that Lincoln had practiced law in its 1857 church. The discovery was made by Mr. Bill Donath,
then president of the Logan County Genealogical and Historical Society in
Lincoln and one of its key researchers, after he read my February article.
Apparently church officials in 2007 had not seen the 1941 article, nor had I, when I
first pointed out a lack of primary source evidence for the “Lincoln in church” claim.
In 2007 church officials apparently did not know when the plaque’s dedication was made,
but they did know that Earl C. Hargrove and Judge Stringer had participated in the
dedication ceremony. I had determined the time frame of the dedication to be
between 1937, when Mr. Hargrove became minister of the Lincoln Christian Church
(Beaver, History of Logan County 1982,
and 1942, the year Judge Stringer died
(Beaver, in Foreword to the 1978
reprinted edition of History of Logan County 1911).
In 2007 I did not believe any newspaper
article about the dedication would be definitively significant because, like
the plaque, it would be only a secondary source.
Consequently, I did not look for that article. As it turns out, I should
have because the Courier article includes the full text of Stringer’s
dedication speech, and that speech refers to an obscure primary source not
mentioned in his 1911 History.
In his 1941 plaque
dedication address, Mr. Hargrove pointed out that Lincoln’s many references to a
divinity disproved the accusation that he was “an agnostic, an infidel, and
an atheist,” as some had charged. Stringer’s address recounted Lincoln’s
various legal activities in Logan County, and Stringer stated that Lincoln
had substituted for Davis as judge in the circuit court when it was held in
the Lincoln Christian Church in the fall of 1857. Stringer’s speech cited
the reminiscence of Dr. Jacob Hoke Beidler, who was living in Lincoln in
In the middle 1880s, Dr. Beidler wrote of his early experiences, and they
were allegedly published in the Lincoln Herald. One of Beidler’s
recollections is his account of a session of the 1857 fall court term when
it was held in the Lincoln Christian Church. Stringer quotes Beidler’s
I saw Lincoln for the first time
in the village of Lincoln in Logan County. The Logan County Courthouse
had been destroyed by fire and court was held at the time in the Christian
Church. As I entered the courtroom, I discovered that Judge Davis was not
occupying the bench but that another man and one I had never seen was
dispensing justice. His rulings were so rapid and his language was so
pertinent that I felt he must be a legal gentleman of eminence. I inquired
who he was and was informed that he was Abe Lincoln of Springfield.
History of Logan County, Illinois, gives a brief biographical sketch of
Dr. Beidler but does not refer to Beidler’s story of having seen Mr. Lincoln in
1857 at the bench. Stringer's plaque dedication speech is not the first
instance in which one of his speeches presented a startling
revelation about Mr. Lincoln’s relationship to his First Namesake Town.
Stringer’s speech at the 1909 Lincoln Centennial Celebration stated that the
town’s founding fathers offered to name the town after Mr. Lincoln in
compensation for his legal work in securing the town charter.
Historians have identified occasions for which Judge
David Davis asked Lincoln to substitute for him. Professor Willard L. King, Davis’s biographer, wrote: “In emergencies, Lincoln
and certain other lawyers sometimes presided in Judge Davis’s place. . . .
Of course, a mere member of the bar could not sit in any case if the lawyer
for either side objected. . . . The occasions on which Lincoln presided for
Davis are hard to find since the participating lawyers agreed that the
clerk's official record should show Judge Davis as sitting throughout, and
only Lincoln's handwriting on the Judge's personal docket would reveal the
substitution" (p. 95). King cites examples of Lincoln's handwriting as
evidence of his substitution for Judge Davis, but none of them relate to the
Logan County Circuit Court.
Lincoln Authority Lloyd Ostendorf's Drawing
Titled Lincoln the Lawyer and Judge,
Lawyer Lincoln; Lincoln,
Illinois 2nd Courthouse; and Judge Lincoln, 1859
Drawing courtesy of Professor Ron J. Keller of Lincoln
College, from Mr. Ostendorf's collection titled "Scenes of Abraham Lincoln's
Life with His Godchildren: His Town, College, County." The above drawing was
sponsored by the Lincoln Lions Club in cooperation with the Logan County
Abraham Lincoln Heritage Foundation. Mr. Ostendorf's annotation for this
While many people know of Lincoln the lawyer, few are aware that he also
served as a judge. He is pictured here in both roles. The building is the
second Logan County Courthouse to be built in Lincoln, Illinois. In this
building during the March term of the 1859 Eighth Judicial Circuit, Mr.
Lincoln participated as a judge in 34 cases. In one of the cases Mr. Lincoln
served as both a lawyer and a judge. On March 19, 1860, Mr. Lincoln
participated in his last trial on the historic Eighth Judicial Circuit in
this courthouse. Ahead would lie the presidency and immortality. The
courthouse depicted here was dismantled in 1903 when the present courthouse
Concerning Beidler's alleged, eyewitness
account of Mr. Lincoln serving as a judge in the Lincoln Christian Church:
historians maintain that reminiscence can be unreliable. In "'Judge' Abraham
Lincoln" (1955), historian Harry E. Pratt, PhD, wrote, "Beidler apparently
confused this occasion with Saturday, April 2, 1859, when Lincoln did
preside in the city named for him." The 1859 Logan County Circuit Court
did not, of course, meet in the Lincoln Christian Church, and surely Dr.
Beidler would not have confused the church setting with the courthouse
courtroom. Also, as explained above, circumstantial evidence shows that the
second week of the 1857 fall term of the Logan County Circuit Court was the
most likely time in which Mr. Lincoln could have been there as a
participant. Dr. Pratt cited numerous, verified cases in which Lincoln
substituted as judge for David Davis, but the April 2, 1859,
case was the only one from the Logan County Circuit Court.
The quality of Dr. Beidler’s reminiscence is uncertain. First, there is
the question of how reliable his nearly thirty-year memory was. Second,
there is the question of how reliable the informer was who told Beidler the
man on the bench was Lincoln. Amazingly, another lawyer took part in this
1857 circuit court who was described as a Lincoln look-alike--Lionel P.
Lacey (or, Lacy), as explained below. Third, no 1857 primary source evidence, such as a court
document, newspaper report, diary entry, or letter, has been identified that would corroborate Beidler’s story.
Jacob Hoke Beidler, MD: The
Forgotten Fireside Poet Eulogist of
Abraham Lincoln from His First Namesake Town
Photo from J.H. Beidler, Poems (1903)
Yet Beidler’s testimony is
significant. First, it would have reinforced Judge Stringer's (mistaken) belief that the trial judge’s instructions
in the Dalby case had been written by Mr. Lincoln in the Lincoln
Christian Church during the 1857 fall term of the Logan County Circuit Court.
(Judge Stringer must have discovered Dr. Beidler's reminiscent
account after publishing the 1911 History, which does not mention
it.) Second, Beidler’s story raises the
question of whether some primary source such as a newspaper, letter, diary,
or court document in Lincoln’s hand from the 1857 fall term of the Logan County Circuit
Court might yet be discovered. The chances, however, are remote, given how
thorough the searches for Lincoln-related primary sources have been.
Previously, in researching another
aspect of my hometown's Lincoln heritage, I had discovered
that Jacob Hoke Beidler (1829--1904), MD, was
well known in Lincoln and Logan County. He was the
organizer of Logan County’s first teachers' institutes, an inventor, and a
published poet who had written several poems eulogizing Lincoln in the
sentimental tradition of the Fireside Poets of nineteenth-century New
England. Stringer says a copy of Beidler’s Poems,
including "Lincoln, or, the Prime Hero of the Nineteenth Century" (access
below via link under Sources Cited and Suggested),
was placed beneath the cornerstone of the present-day Logan County
Courthouse when it was laid in 1903. A brother of Dr. Beidler, S. Linn
Beidler, had given an account of witnessing Abraham Lincoln studying Stephen
A. Douglas when he delivered a political speech under a circus tent in
September 1858 during the Lincoln-Douglas debates (access link under Sources
Cited and Suggested.)
Lionel P. Lacey (Lacy) (1819--1866)--the
Lincoln look-alike mentioned above--had participated in the 1857 fall Logan
County Circuit Court when it was held in the Lincoln Christian Church,
according to Judge Stringer's History (vol. 1, p. 327). Mr. Lacey had practiced law in
Logan County during the 1840s and 1850s. Stringer refers
to him as Judge Lacey. According to the reminiscence of one of Lacey’s
daughters, “She heard a friend of her father say that ‘as Lacey and Lincoln
rode together going to court on horseback, it was hard to tell them apart.
They were both tall, lean men of a similar appearance. Mr. Lacey wore a
beard and had the same cadaverous expression, but not so sad however, as his
lot in life had always been easier.'” (Of course, Lincoln did not have a
beard when he might have ridden with Mr. Lacey.) According to Stringer's History, Lacey
“was much respected in the county” (vol. 1, p. 491). In view of Lacey’s
favorable reputation and presence at the 1857 fall court in the church, it is not out of
the question that David Davis could have asked Lacey to substitute briefly
for him then and there--and that someone could have mistaken him for "Abe" Lincoln.
Lincoln Look-Alike and Sometime
Law Partner Lionel P. Lacey
from the online Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln
Rediscovering the Missing Church
In April 2017, at the dedication of the Mill Route 66 Heritage Museum in
Lincoln, Mr. Geoff Ladd, Assistant Director at Illinois Route 66 Scenic
Byway, presented Mr. Ron Otto of the Lincoln Christian Church with the
missing church plaque. It had mysteriously reappeared and was delivered to Mr. Ladd, who
decided to return it to the church. The reappearance of the plaque may
encourage some locals in continuing to believe that Mr. Lincoln had practiced law in
the Lincoln Christian Church.
2017 Plaque Photo from
A Brief History of the Lincoln Christian Church
and Additional Lincoln Lore Relating to the "Lawyer Lincoln in Church"
Some of the oldest churches in Lincoln were located in the downtown area,
several just one or two blocks north of the square. Two blocks northeast of the Logan County
Courthouse square, the founding fathers laid out a city block for a park
that came to be called Latham Park after Col. Robert B. Latham, one of the
founding fathers, who also built his home facing this park. The park still
bears his name, but his house was demolished early in the twentieth century.
On the square of this
park, four religious groups built houses of worship at various times:
Methodists, the Christian Church Society, Universalists (similar to the
Unitarians), and Jews. The historical record indicates that both a Methodist Church and a Christian Church were
built on the square of Latham Park in the late 1850s. After the county seat was moved
to Mt. Pulaski in 1848 (returned to Lincoln in 1855), the Postville Courthouse was sold to a private owner, so the
Methodists, who had used the Postville Courthouse, in 1853 held church in the new Alton & Chicago Depot in Lincoln
(Stringer, vol. 1, p. 512). That depot was demolished early in the twentieth
century. A synagogue facing Latham Park was built in 1910
at the corner of McLean and Delavan Streets (Stringer, vol. 1, p. 508). That
structure is now owned and occupied by the Lincoln Woman's [sic]
Club. In addition to the
churches and synagogue, the Lincoln Public Library was located on the square
of Latham Park at the corner of Pekin and McLean Streets. The
library's public-service mission and the houses of worship that surrounded
Latham Park made this area one of the most spiritual/cultural settings of
In his Ancestors: A Family History (1971), the
celebrated native Lincolnite author William Maxwell discusses the evolution of
the Christian Church denomination from its Presbyterian roots and describes
his father's family's devotion to the Lincoln Christian Church.
A Christian Church was built on "a lot on Pekin Street
between Kickapoo and McLean Streets . . . [the land] donated by Messers. Latham, Gillett,
and Hickox, the proprietors of the original town of Lincoln" (Stringer,
vol. 1, p.
502). Beaver's History of Logan County 1982 has a photo of the
first Christian Church, and someone had printed on the photo: "Built AD.1856.
Wrecked A.D. 1903. John A. Simpson Architect" (p. 134). On this same site,
the Christian Church built a replacement church in 1904--where the
controversial plaque was installed--,
and the third, contemporary Lincoln Christian Church, was built at Pekin and McLean
dedicated December 5, 1954 (Beaver, p. 62). The photo below shows the original
Lincoln Christian Church.
Original Lincoln Christian
Church, on Pekin Street, Being Dismantled in 1903
Photo courtesy of David Doolin
At first I thought this photo,
which I had seen published in Raymond Dooley, The Namesake Town, p.
19, was taken during the construction of the church in 1856--57. After
receiving a message from Lincolnite David Doolin in April 2009, I changed my mind about the
date and circumstance of the photo. The photo shows the church being
dismantled in 1903. The church was dismantled during a time when
materials were re-used in new construction.
Additional Lincoln lore relating to the "lawyer Lincoln in church"
question: In his email message to me of 9-13-2007, Mr. Parmenter had written, "We have in
our possession two pictures and partial articles from the Lincoln Evening
Courier and the Illinois State Register, dated February 9,
1952. The articles state that the items were donated to
the church by a Justice of the Peace named J.G. Pruitt and are said to
have been used by Lincoln when he practiced law in the Lincoln Church
Neither Judge Stringer nor
Mr. Hickey had written one word about this alleged connection. Members of the Lincoln Christian Church were looking for
these relics as of September 2007, just as they were looking for the
plaque described above.
I, too, had discovered the
photo of these items in the Courier (2-9-1952, p. 8) some years ago
when I was doing preliminary research for my collaborative, community
history website of my hometown. I did not then use this photo in my Web
treatment of Abraham Lincoln because the connection of
the boot jack, tongs, and poker to Abraham Lincoln is questionable. According to "Church
Tries to Prove Lincoln Legend True," these items
were "donated to the church years ago by a judge who was born in 1853" (State
Journal-Register, 9-06-07). That person, a young child when Mr. Lincoln
allegedly practiced law in the Lincoln Christian Church, was apparently
a link in the oral history chain that alleged Mr. Lincoln's use of those
relics. That long chain may extend even to the present. As of December
2017, no corroborating primary source has been uncovered. Nor have the
relics been rediscovered.
The man at the right in the photo below is E.H. Lukenbill (1888--1978), a 1928
graduate of Lincoln College. For more than forty years, from 1916 to
1959, Mr. Lukenbill served as the beloved Superintendent of Schools of
Logan County (Beaver, p. 631). Mr. Lukenbill was well known to teachers
and students of Lincoln the town and Logan County for his fascination with the Lincoln legend. As Mr. Lukenbill
made his rounds to various schools, he was fond of moralistic
storytelling about the studious, "Honest Abe" Lincoln of New Salem, and my classmates and I at Jefferson School happily
anticipated and greatly enjoyed the impromptu entertainment that interrupted the regular
classroom business (for stories about the Lincoln legend relating to New
Salem, see Wayne Whipple, The Story-Life of Lincoln, publication
details in Works Cited and Suggested).
The highlight of Mr. Lukenbill's local history activism was his
leadership in the 1953 Centennial Celebration of the founding of the
First Lincoln Namesake Town. For example, he was the master of
ceremonies at the dedication of the Postville Courthouse replica and had
the challenge of entertaining the crowd until Governor Stratton arrived.
Mr. Stratton was late because on the way from Springfield to Lincoln, he
had been joyriding on the new four lanes of Route 66 before they were
opened to the public. My Jefferson School classmates and I witnessed the
dedication ceremony. (Access link to the Centennial Celebration in
Sources Cited and Suggested.) Mr. Lukenbill's final retirement was with the US Department of Education
in Washington, D.C. He rests in Old Union Cemetery southwest of Lincoln,
as does Judge Stringer. Mr. Hickey rests in the adjacent Holy Cross
Cemetery (not in the cemetery on top of Elkhart Hill, near his
cherished, rural Logan County home).
helped to get Lincoln the town and Lincoln the man into my blood, as did
James Hickey. I just missed Judge Stringer: he died the year I was
Used by Abraham Lincoln
(Photo from the Lincoln Courier, 2-9-1952, p. 8)
This report shows that no evidence to date proves
or disproves that Abraham Lincoln practiced law in
the Christian Church of Lincoln, Illinois. The history of the search for the
answer to the "lawyer Lincoln in church" question involves plot twists that tease us with the
possibility that he might have, and additional primary source evidence may
yet be found. Meanwhile, Lincoln buffs, including boosters of his First
Namesake Town who want to erect another historical marker honoring their
founders' attorney, must accept the
high probability that an answer to the question will remain one of the lesser
mysteries in the life of Abraham Lincoln. (Note: a link to this
report appears in the first paragraph at
Undated Picture Postcard of
the Lincoln Christian Church,
the Miller Building (at right), and
the Lincoln Public Library
Lincoln Christian Church
Group, Early Twentieth Century
(Photo courtesy of Fred Blanford)
Sources Cited and
Abraham Lincoln's activity, fall 1857,
Abraham Lincoln's activity, spring 1858,
Beard, William D. "Dalby Revisited: A New Look at Lincoln's 'Most
Far-Reaching Case' in the Illinois Supreme Court," Journal of the Abraham
Lincoln Association, 20.2 (Summer 1999): 1-16,
Beaver, Paul J. History of Logan County 1982 (Lincoln, Illinois: the
Logan County Heritage Foundation and Dallas, Texas: the Taylor Publishing
Beidler, Jacob Hoke, "Lincoln, or, the Prime Hero of the Nineteenth
"Church Claim About Lincoln Has
"Church's Connection to Abraham Lincoln Questioned,"
"Church Researching a New Connection to Abraham Lincoln,"
"Church Tries to Prove Lincoln Legend True,"
September 6, 2007.
Duff, John J., A. Lincoln
Prairie Lawyer (New York: Bramhall House, 1960), 270.
Henson, D. Leigh, "Stephen Douglas Speaking in Lincoln, Illinois, with Abraham Lincoln in the
Henson, D. Leigh, "The 1953 Historic Centennial
Celebration of Lincoln, Illinois,"
Hickey, James T., The Collected Writings of James T. Hickey,
1953--1984 (Springfield, Illinois: the Illinois State Historical Society,
King, Willard L. Lincoln's Manager: David
Davis (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1960).
Klose, Roland, "Missing Lincoln Link," Illinois Times
"Lincoln Christian Church Holds Unique Historical
“Lionel P. Lacey Was Legal
Adviser,” Lincoln Evening Courier, Centennial Edition, Section Eight,
Wednesday, August 26, 1953, p. 15.
Ancestors: A Family History (New York: Vintage Books, 1971).
"No Proof Abe Lincoln on Hand, Records
Here Show." Lincoln Evening Courier, Centennial Edition, Section
Wednesday, August 26, 1953, p. 8.
Ostendorf, Lloyd, 2000
death notice in the Chicago Tribune,
Pratt, Harry E.
"'Judge' Abraham Lincoln," Journal of the Illinois State Historical
Scoiety, 48.1 (Springfield, Illinois, 1955), 37.
Saul, Nancy, "Abe's Stint in Church Remains
Uncertain," Lincoln Courier, September 29, 2007.
Saul, Nancy, "Story Stands: Abe Did Practice Law
in Lincoln Church." Lincoln Courier, September 8, 2007.
Sherman, Pete, "Church
Tries to Prove Lincoln Legend True." State Journal-Register,
September 6, 2007.
Smith, Nila, "Long Lost Abraham Lincoln Artifact Found at
the Mill on Route 66,"
Google searches will identify several other online articles about the
rediscovery of the plaque.
Stringer, Lawrence B., History of Logan
County Illinois (1911). (Reprinted by UNIGRAPHIC, INC. Evansville, IN: 1978. Foreword
by Paul J. Beaver, then an associate professor of history at Lincoln College
and curator of its Lincoln Collection).
Stringer, Lawrence B., Publications, speeches, and other papers in the
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum,
B. Stringer&by=KW&sort=PD_AU&limit=(TOM=* and
own=617)&query=&page=0&searchid=3. Also, Michael
Burlingame's Abraham Lincoln A life, vol. 1, (Baltimore, MD: The
Johns Hopkins Press, 2008), p. 913, has a footnote that indicates Judge
Stringer left an unpublished, Lincoln biographical document,
Beaumont Stringer, “From the Sangamon to the Potomac: More Light on
Abraham Lincoln,” typescript of an unpublished manuscript, p. 95, Edgar
Dewitt Jones Papers, Detroit Public Library.
The Law Practice of
Abraham Lincoln, 2nd ed.,
Welander, Patti. "Lincoln Christian Church
Holds Unique Historical
Significance," Bloomington Pantagraph, September 9, 2007.
Whipple, Wayne, Chapter 5, "Six Years at New Salem," The Story-Life of
Lincoln (Philadelphia, PA: The John C. Winston Company, 1908), 80--142.
For more information
about and photos of Lawrence B. Stringer, James T. Hickey, and other
historians who have published on the history of Lincoln and Logan County,
Henson's publications available at Amazon.com,
"The Past Is But the